ZonMw rehabilitation program I 'Restoration of mobility'
ZonMw rehabilitation program II 'ALLRISC'
1. Umbrella project Restoration of mobility
2. Wheelchair skills
3. Cardiovascular adaptation
4. Mechanical strain of the upper extremities
5. Spasticity reduction using FES
6. Coordination of the upper extremities in tetraplegia
7. Everyday physical activity
8. Hand-arm policy in tetraplegia
9. Handbiking
10. Transmural nursing care
11. Immigrants in SCI rehabilitation
12. Determinants of physical capacity
13. Patient involvement in SCI rehabilitation
14. Respiratory adaptations
15. Classification of paramedical intervention
16. Patient monitoring
17. Upper extremity task performance in high SCI
18. Quality of life during and after SCI rehabilitation
19. Pulmonary complications and   physical inactivity
21. Universal wheelchair mobility skills test
22. WHEEL-i
23. Life satisfaction & wheelchair exercise capacity
24. Shoulder pain & range of motion 
Related projects
NVDG research group

Rehabilitation and reintegration of

immigrants with spinal cord injury




Leontine van de Ven, MsC (Researcher)

Marcel Post, PhD (Project leader)

Anja Krumeich, PhD

Floris van Asbeck, MD, PhD

W. Nieuwstraten, MsC

A. Yildiz (Person with a spinal cord injury)




This research project is part of the program called ‘Physical strain, work capacity and mechanisms of restoration of mobility in the rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury’. People who do not speak Dutch are excluded from participation in this program for several research. Because of this the problems in daily living of a large and relevant group of people with spinal cord injury are unknown. Besides this it is expected, based on research in the rehabilitation field in the Netherlands, that rehabilitation of immigrants is more problematic and leads to lesser outcomes than rehabilitation of Dutch patients with spinal cord injury.


Theoretical framework

Research in the rehabilitation field by Thomas et al (1999) revealed several problems in the rehabilitation of immigrants in the Netherlands. These problems include differences in expectations towards rehabilitation and its outcomes and difficulties in communication. It is important to make a difference between problems stemming from cultural aspects and more common problems in rehabilitation. Also in the general population rehabilitation is not always free of difficulties.

According to Kleinman (1980), a famous author in the field medical anthropology, there are always differences in views on health and health care between patients and healers. Kleinman (1980) distinguishes between three sectors in health care: popular, professional and folk. The popular sector includes the person with spinal cord injury and his or her family. The professional sector includes the healers with a formal status in a particular society. The folk sector includes alternative forms of healing. Each sector has its own ‘general beliefs’ on illness which explain why, when en how illness occurs and can be healed. Besides this each person has ‘explanatory models’ which explain a particular illness episode.


Research questions

This research project must lead to recommendations to improve rehabilitation of immigrants with spinal cord injury. Besides this a better insight into the process of rehabilitation and reintegration of immigrants with spinal cord injury and insight into the meaning of independence and reintegration to immigrants should be obtained.

Research questions:


Methods to be used

This research has a qualitative design. To answer the first research question literature and medical files of people with spinal cord injury are studied. To answer research questions two and three in-depth interviews are held with immigrant and Dutch patients with spinal cord injuries and with members of the rehabilitation team. Topics include: view on and experience with rehabilitation; view on independence, use of assistive devices; view on integration into society, needs with respect to improvement of rehabilitation.


You can read more about this project in the Dutch brochure or the English poster.





Contact address

Sonja de Groot / Lucas van der Woude

Center for Human Movement Sciences

University Medical Center Groningen

University of Groningen

Antonius Deusinglaan 1

9713AV Groningen,

The Netherlands