ZonMw rehabilitation program I 'Restoration of mobility'
ZonMw rehabilitation program II 'ALLRISC'
1. Umbrella project Restoration of mobility
2. Wheelchair skills
3. Cardiovascular adaptation
4. Mechanical strain of the upper extremities
5. Spasticity reduction using FES
6. Coordination of the upper extremities in tetraplegia
7. Everyday physical activity
8. Hand-arm policy in tetraplegia
9. Handbiking
10. Transmural nursing care
11. Immigrants in SCI rehabilitation
12. Determinants of physical capacity
13. Patient involvement in SCI rehabilitation
14. Respiratory adaptations
15. Classification of paramedical intervention
16. Patient monitoring
17. Upper extremity task performance in high SCI
18. Quality of life during and after SCI rehabilitation
19. Pulmonary complications and   physical inactivity
21. Universal wheelchair mobility skills test
22. WHEEL-i
23. Life satisfaction & wheelchair exercise capacity
24. Shoulder pain & range of motion 
Related projects
NVDG research group

Development of a universal wheeled mobility skills test for 

manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury



Osnat Douer, MSc (Researcher)  

Yves Vanlandewijck (Project leader)

Lucas van der Woude, PhD (Project leader)



This project is a collaboration of the Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven and the Center for Human Movement Sciences, University of Groningen The Netherland. It aims to develop a universal wheeled mobility skills test for hand rim wheelchair users with a SCI in order to establish norms and standards for wheelchair skill performances.

This instrument should measure the level of well-selected wheelchair skills performance, be methodologically strong and practically feasible. The main research question is: which skills, scale and equipment should comprise a universal wheelchair skills test that is valid, sensitive and reliable, aimed for fast and easy screening, differentiating between a wide range of performance levels of hand-rim wheelchair users with a SCI? The set up of the new universal WM skills test is based on a) the primary definition chosen for wheeled mobility and wheelchair skill performances; b) a systematic critical literature review of available wheeled mobility skill test enabling to develop the standardized wheelchair skills test, relying on the strengths of existing measurement tools, to define ‘a good and quality WM skills test for a wide range of mobility levels’; c)   an international survey among trained manual wheelchair users with SCI on wheelchair skills essentiality where they choose the most essential skills that may be included in the standardized wheelchair skills test to be developed in this study; d) An "expert group" for discussions, planning and piloting the new wheeled mobility skill tests. The selection of these experts is based on a Self-efficacy in wheeled mobility scale scores among wheelchair users with a SCI throughout Belgium. This self-efficacy scale was developed in the current study as well; e) Performing a cross-sectional study measuring actual performance of the universal wheeled mobility skills test among wheelchair users with a SCI to test the validity and reliability of the standardized wheelchair skills test developed in this study.

Osnat Fliess-Douer is a PhD student at the Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences at KU Leuven, Belgium where she also graduated the EMDAPA program in 1998. Osnat is the director of the Hydrotherapy courses at Wingate college in Israel. Between 2003 and 2007 she was a lecturer at Bar –Ilan University. Osnat owns a hydrotherapy center called MultiPool, in the town of Binyamina. She is a certified Jahara® aquatic technique teacher. Out of the water Osnat is a wheelchair basketball coach and classifier. Between2007-2009 she was the coach of the Israeli women wheelchair basketball team. Osnat is a member of the IPC (International Paralympic Committee) Sport Science Committee.


Downloads for the Self-Efficacy in Wheeled Mobility scale (SEWM)

Dutch SEWM

English SEWM

French SEWM

Hebrew SEWM

Spanish SEWM

List of daily wheeled mobility skills sorted by level of essentially


Downloads for the TOWM and Wheelie

Protocols for Test Of Wheeled Mobility (TOWM) and the Wheelie test















Contact address

Sonja de Groot / Lucas van der Woude

Center for Human Movement Sciences

University Medical Center Groningen

University of Groningen

Antonius Deusinglaan 1

9713AV Groningen,

The Netherlands